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Kidney Stone


A kidney stone can form when substances such as calcium, oxalate, cystine, or uric acid are at high levels in the urine. Stones can also form if these substances are at normal levels, especially if the amount of urine made each day is low. The substances form crystals, which become anchored in the kidney and gradually increase in size, forming a kidney stone.

Typically, the stone will move through the urinary tract and is passed out of the body in the urine. A stone may cause pain if it becomes stuck and blocks the flow of urine. Large stones do not always pass on their own and sometimes require a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove them.


Certain diseases, dietary habits, or medications can increase your risk of developing kidney stones.

  • Pain — Pain is the most common symptom when passing a kidney stone. Most commonly, pain only occurs with obstruction, in which the urine cannot pass freely from the kidney to the bladder. Pain can range from a mild and barely noticeable ache to discomfort that is so intense it requires treatment in the hospital. Typically, the pain gets worse and better, but does not go away completely. Waves of severe pain, known as renal colic, usually last 20 to 60 minutes. Pain can occur in the flank (the side, between the ribs and the hip) or the lower abdomen (figure 1), and the pain can move toward the groin.
  • Blood in the urine — Most people with kidney stones will have blood in the urine (hematuria). The urine may be pink or reddish, or the blood may be visible only with urine dipstick testing or microscopic examination of the urine. Gravel — You may pass "gravel" or "sand," which are small stones in your urine
  • Other symptoms — Other kidney stone symptoms include nausea or vomiting, pain with urination, and an urgent need to urinate.
  • Asymptomatic kidney stones — Many people with stones that remain in the kidney and do not cause obstruction have no symptoms (asymptomatic means without symptoms). These kidney stones are usually found when an imaging study (such as an ultrasound, X-ray or CT scan) is performed for other purposes. Stones can remain in the kidneys for many years without ever causing symptoms.

Kidney stones are usually diagnosed based upon your symptoms, a physical examination, and imaging studies.

Computed tomography (CT) scan — A CT scan creates a three-dimensional image of structures within the body. A particular type of CT scan (called noncontrast helical CT) is often recommended if kidney stones are suspected because it is the best imaging test to see a kidney stone. Ultrasound — An ultrasound (or sonogram) can also be used to detect kidney stones, although small stones or stones in the ureters (tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder) may be missed. However, ultrasound is the procedure of choice for people who should avoid radiation, including pregnant women and children.


It is done by PCNL, RIRS, Mini PCNL, Lithotripsy & Laparoscopy Surgery.