HOW KIDNEY STONES DEVELOP
A kidney stone can form when substances such as calcium, oxalate, cystine, or uric acid are at high levels in the urine. Stones can also form if these substances are at normal levels, especially if the amount of urine made each day is low. The substances form crystals, which become anchored in the kidney and gradually increase in size, forming a kidney stone.
Typically, the stone will move through the urinary tract and is passed out of the body in the urine. A stone may cause pain if it becomes stuck and blocks the flow of urine. Large stones do not always pass on their own and sometimes require a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove them.
Certain diseases, dietary habits, or medications can increase your risk of developing kidney stones.
Kidney stones are usually diagnosed based upon your symptoms, a physical examination, and imaging studies.
Computed tomography (CT) scan — A CT scan creates a three-dimensional image of structures within the body. A particular type of CT scan (called noncontrast helical CT) is often recommended if kidney stones are suspected because it is the best imaging test to see a kidney stone. Ultrasound — An ultrasound (or sonogram) can also be used to detect kidney stones, although small stones or stones in the ureters (tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder) may be missed. However, ultrasound is the procedure of choice for people who should avoid radiation, including pregnant women and children.Treatment
It is done by PCNL, RIRS, Mini PCNL, Lithotripsy & Laparoscopy Surgery.